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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 24-27

Value of screening for vesicoureteral reflux in infants with antenatal hydronephrosis in king abdulaziz medical city-Riyadh


1 Department of Medical Education, Collage of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Science, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Neonatal Intensive Care Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Date of Web Publication29-Jan-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abdullah Mansour Alsaef
College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Science, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcn.JCN_75_18

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  Abstract 


Background: Antenatal hydronephrosis (AHN) is diagnosed in 0.5%–1% of pregnancies. Hydronephrosis has many causes, but vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) remains an important cause, as it could lead to serious damage to the kidneys. Screening for VUR by voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is done in infants with congenital hydronephrosis to detect VUR that could lead to repeated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the value of VCUG as a screening tool for VUR in infants with various grades of hydronephrosis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective chart review for all infants with antenatal hydronephrosis between January 2010 and December 2015 at King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh. Comparisons were made between hydronephrosis grades and VUR. Differences, therefore, were assessed for statistical significance using Chi-square test as appropriate. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 22. Results: During the study periods, 203 infants (75% of the study population) underwent VCUG. VUR was diagnosed in 21% of all infants who had VCUG. VUR was significantly higher in infants with high grade compared to low-grade hydronephrosis (30% versus 14.40%, P = 0.005). On the other hand, no significant difference found between high-grade hydronephrosis and low-grade hydronephrosis in the severity of VUR (P = 0.169). Meanwhile, high-grade hydronephrosis was significantly more associated with UTI 27.20% (25/92) than low-grade hydronephrosis 14.70% (26/177). Conclusion: Infants with antenatal hydronephrosis (HN) suffer greater morbidity as reflected by the increased incidence of VUR and UTI at follow-up. For high-grade HN, our recommendation clearly goes with the current practice for doing VCUG to all high-grade patients. On the other hand, the risk of VUR and UTI, although higher in infants with high-grade HN is still substantial in infants with low-grade HN. However, it is still controversial to do VCUG for them. Hence, we recommend further big researches about low-grade HN and VCUG to come up with clear conclusion for this HN group.

Keywords: Hydronephrosis, urinary tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux, voiding cystourethrogram


How to cite this article:
Alsaef AM, Alsadoun F, Alsaif A, Masudi E, Ali K, Alsaif S, Ahmed I. Value of screening for vesicoureteral reflux in infants with antenatal hydronephrosis in king abdulaziz medical city-Riyadh. J Clin Neonatol 2019;8:24-7

How to cite this URL:
Alsaef AM, Alsadoun F, Alsaif A, Masudi E, Ali K, Alsaif S, Ahmed I. Value of screening for vesicoureteral reflux in infants with antenatal hydronephrosis in king abdulaziz medical city-Riyadh. J Clin Neonatol [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Jul 22];8:24-7. Available from: http://www.jcnonweb.com/text.asp?2019/8/1/24/250984




  Introduction Top


“Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) refers to the dilation of the renal pelvis with or without dilation of the renal calyces,”[1] Antenatal hydronephrosis is diagnosed in 0.5%–1% of pregnancies.[1] In a meta-analysis published in 2006 including 17 studies, antenatal hydronephrosis was identified in 1.6% of pregnancies.[2] Similarly, data from a study conducted at King Abdulaziz University found that hydronephrosis occurred in 1.7% of pregnancies.[3]

There are different causes of antenatal hydronephrosis including vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) ureteropelvic junction obstruction and transient hydronephrosis.[4] Fetal hydronephrosis is readily diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound as early as 12th week of gestation.[5] The diagnosis of hydronephrosis is established if the anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis on the second trimester is ≥4 or ≥7 mm in the third trimester.[6] Hydronephrosis is graded into three grades as mild, moderate, and severe based on the ultrasound result Based on the second trimester, evaluation of the renal pelvis, 4–7 mm dilation is mild, 7–10 mm dilation is moderate, and >10 is severe.[6]

Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is recognized as the gold standard for VUR diagnosis.[7] Nevertheless, it is an invasive procedure that has many disadvantages including radiation exposure and the risk of infections. Some studies reported a 12% incidence rate of VUR among infants with ANH screened by VCUG[8] whereas others have found VUR in only 5% of infants with AHN who had VCUG.[3] The aim of the study was to investigate the value of VCUG as a screening tool for VUR in infants with various grades of hydronephrosis.


  Materials And Methods Top


A retrospective chart review was conducted for all infants with an antenatal diagnosis of hydronephrosis born between 2010 and 2015 at King Abdulaziz Medical City Riyadh. The infants were identified from a neonatal database, the neonatal unit admission book, and a radiology database. High-grade hydronephrosis (moderate and severe grades) was defined as renal pelvis dilation of >7 mm and infants with >4–7 mm dilatation were diagnosed as having low-grade hydronephrosis (mild grade). Antenatally hydronephrosis grading was defined in the infants depend on the last AP diameter measurements of the renal pelvis antenatally. All infants with antenatal hydronephrosis went to confirmatory US postnatally. VCUG was performed before maternity unit discharge in all infants with postnatal high-grade hydronephrosis while infants with postnatal low-grade hydronephrosis only had VCUG if the abnormality persisted beyond 6 months of age on follow-up renal ultrasound screening (USS) according to the departmental guidelines. VUR grading was defined according to the International Grading of VUR. Low-grade VUR consists of Grades 1 and 2 which defined as reflux present in the ureter only or ureter, pelvis, and calyces without dilation. Where moderate VUR consists of Grade 3, which is mild dilation of the ureter and renal pelvis. High-grade VUR consists of Grades 4 and 5 VUR which are defined as moderate dilation of ureter, renal pelvis, and calyces or gross dilation of all these. The UTI was defined as febrile infection (38 Celsius and above) and positive urine culture.

Data retrieved from the medical records included gender and the results of VCUG. The severity of the VUR and details of urinary tract infection (UTI) episodes were also documented.

Statistical analysis

Comparisons were made between genders, grades of hydronephrosis, and grades of VUR. Differences, therefore, were assessed for statistical significance using Chi-square test as appropriate. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 22.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

Ethical approval

The paper has been approved by the Institutional Review Board in King Abdullah International Medical Research Center.


  Results Top


A total of 269 infants with antenatal hydronephrosis were born during the 6-year study period. There were 211 males (78%) and 58 (22%) females. One hundred and seventy-seven infants (65.8%) had low-grade HN, and 92 infants had high-grade HN. Among male infants with ANH, one hundred and thirty had a low-grade HN (61.65%), and 81 had a high-grade HN (38.4%). Similarly, there was a predominance of low-grade HN among females, (81%) compared to high-grade HN (19%) [Table 1]. Of the 92 infants diagnosed with high-grade HN, 85 (92.4%) underwent VCUG. Of those underwent VCUG positive, VUR was diagnosed in 30.6% (26/85). Eighteen infants (69%) had severe VUR, two infants (7%) had moderate VUR, and six infants (23%) were diagnosed with mild VUR on VCUG screening for high-grade HN. On the other hand, VCUG screening was performed in 67.8% (120/177) of infants with low-grade hydronephrosis, and VUR was diagnosed in 14.4% (17/120). The severity of VUR diagnosed in infants with low-grade HN who underwent VCUG screening was similar to that of those with high-grade HN with severe VUR diagnosed in 53%, moderate VUR in 29%, and mild VUR in 18%. The percentage of positive VUR was significantly higher in high grade HN (30.6%) compared to low-grade HN (14.4%) (P = 0.005) [Table 2].
Table 1: Patients gender with the hydronephrosis status

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Table 2: Voiding Cystourethrogram, urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux status with the hydronephrosis status

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UTI was diagnosed in 27.2% of infants with high-grade HN compared to 14.7% in infants with low-grade HN (P = 0.013). In addition, UTI was significantly higher in infants with VUR compared to those with no VUR (35% vs. 20%, P = 0.035) [Table 3].
Table 3: Urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux and gender status

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  Discussion Top


The overall incidence of VUR in live born infants with Antenatal HN, in our series, was 21%, which is higher than what was reported previously locally and globally.[3],[8] Importantly, we have demonstrated that infants with low-grade HN can suffer chronic morbidity as evidenced the occurrence of VUR and UTI. However, due to the limitation that not all low-grade HN did VCUG, the significant of these percentages is not clear. Antenatally detected HN is recommended to be followed up postnatally by ultrasound.[9] However, the need for VCUG screening for infants with various grades of HN is controversial,[10] although some recommends VCUG to all hydronephrosis grades.[9] Others suggest VCUG screening to be done only for infants with high-grades hydronephrosis.[8] In our study, VCUG screening was carried out in the neonatal period in 92% of those with high-grade hydronephrosis. This is similar to what was reported from a Canadian study in which VCUG was performed in 98% of the high-grade HN but only 66% of those with low-grade hydronephrosis.[8]

We have also demonstrated a higher prevalence of lower grades HN compared to higher grades. This is similar to what was reported from a large Canadian study.[8] In that study, they found that the prevalence of low-grade HN (71.8%) surpassed the high-grade HN (28.1%).[7] In another international study, the discrepancy between the prevalence of different grades of hydronephrosis was more remarkable.[11] The study found that the prevalence of low-grade HN (88%) was much greater than the high-grade HN (12%).[11] We speculate that the higher consanguinity rate in our study population contributed to the higher prevalence of higher grades hydronephrosis.

In our study, we have found a higher incidence of HN among male infants. This is similar to what was reported from two international studies conducted in South Korea and Canada.[8],[12] Nevertheless, we have not observed significant gender differences in the grade of hydronephrosis and the prevalence of VUR.

In this study, it has been shown that the risk of VUR increases significantly with increasing grade of hydronephrosis. This is in contrast to results from another study which did not show significant differences in the incidence of VUR between high- and low-grades HN.[8]

Limitations

This study has strengths and some limitations. We report a consecutive series of hydronephrosis infants, who underwent management in a single center with a standardized protocol. The data were collected retrospectively but all the radiology information such as the antenatal USS, postnatal USS, and VCUG results were complete. In addition, we were able to track all episodes of UTI in the cohort. Certain information, such as the details of antenatal USS scans, were missing but we do not feel that this would have impacted in our results. However, 32.2% of low-grade HN subjects were not screened for VUR so this may overestimate the incidence of VUR in low-grade HN. Another limitation that patients with congenital renal anomalies were not excluded from the study.


  Conclusion Top


Infants with antenatal hydronephrosis (HN) suffer greater morbidity as reflected by the increased incidence of VUR and UTI at follow-up. For high-grade HN our recommendation clearly goes with the current practice for doing VCUG to all high-grade patients. On the other hand, the risk of VUR and UTI, although higher in infants with high-grade HN is still substantial in infants with low-grade HN. However, it is still controversial to do VCUG for them. Hence, we recommend further big researches about low-grade HN and VCUG to come up with clear conclusion for this HN group.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Blyth B, Snyder HM, Duckett JW. Antenatal diagnosis and subsequent management of hydronephrosis. J Urol 1993;149:693-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Lee RS, Cendron M, Kinnamon DD, Nguyen HT. Antenatal hydronephrosis as a predictor of postnatal outcome: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2006;118:586-93.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kari JA, Habiballah S, Alsaedi SA, Alsaggaf H, Al-dabbagh A, AbulHamail A, et al. Incidence and outcomes of antenatally detected congenital hydronephrosis. Ann Saudi Med 2013;33:260-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Baskin LS, Mattoo TK, Wilkins-Haug L. Overview of fetal hydronephrosis. UpToDate Login 2017;6:25.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Robyr R, Benachi A, Daikha-Dahmane F, Martinovich J, Dumez Y, Ville Y, et al. Correlation between ultrasound and anatomical findings in fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction in the first half of pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;25:478-82.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Nguyen HT, Herndon CD, Cooper C, Gatti J, Kirsch A, Kokorowski P, et al. The society for fetal urology consensus statement on the evaluation and management of antenatal hydronephrosis. J Pediatr Urol 2010;6:212-31.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Piscitelli A, Galiano R, Serrao F, Concolino D, Vitale R, D'Ambrosio G, et al. Which cystography in the diagnosis and grading of vesicoureteral reflux? Pediatr Nephrol 2008;23:107-10.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Szymanski KM, Al-Said AN, Pippi Salle JL, Capolicchio JP. Do infants with mild prenatal hydronephrosis benefit from screening for vesicoureteral reflux? J Urol 2012;188:576-81.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Mohammadjafari H, Alam A, Kosarian M, Mousavi SA, Kosarian S. Vesicoureteral reflux in neonates with hydronephrosis; role of imaging tools. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 2009;19:347-53.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Yerkes EB, Adams MC, Pope JC 4th, Brock JW 3rd. Does every patient with prenatal hydronephrosis need voiding cystourethrography? J Urol 1999;162:1218-20.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Herndon CD, McKenna PH, Kolon TF, Gonzales ET, Baker LA, Docimo SG, et al. A multicenter outcomes analysis of patients with neonatal reflux presenting with prenatal hydronephrosis. J Urol 1999;162:1203-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Choi HA, Lee DJ, Shin SM, Lee YK, Ko SY, Park SW. The prenatal and postnatal incidence of congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) detected by ultrasound. Child Kidney Dis 2016;20:29-32.  Back to cited text no. 12
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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