Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Users Online: 181
 
About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Advertise Login 
     


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 191-197

Non-maternal nursing in the muslim community: A health perspective review


Family Medicine Department, College of Medicine, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Date of Web Publication15-Oct-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Fouzia Abdulaziz AlHreashy
MD, IBCLC, Consultant Family Medicine, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcn.JCN_55_18

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Non-maternal nursing is a valuable option for healthy infant nutrition. It is currently practiced as direct wet nursing and feeding of expressed milk from a wet nurse, and the applicability of both varies across cultures. Review of the relevant literature revealed an understanding of the characteristics, benefits, and challenges in the practice of wet nursing across different cultures. There is a paucity of literature on direct wet nursing in medicine. On the other hand, there is a considerable amount of discussion on the indirect method (donor human milk feeding) in the context of milk banks and feeding premature infants or sharing in the community. The ideal characteristics of a wet nurse and/or a human milk donor are addressed. The challenges that face non-maternal nursing include health, economic, cultural, and other challenges – the majority of which can be overcome at the individual or community level. Finally, in the context of Muslim communities, milk kinship should not be considered an obstacle to non-maternal nursing; indeed, it should be addressed as a fortunate feature that can expand human relations between the wet nurses and the receiving families. The findings of this review indicate the need for evidence-based guidelines for non-maternal nursing across various social context and clinical scenarios. Moreover, it is important to utilize modern technology in donor human milk feeding in specific situations to ensure that the benefits of human milk are extended to infants of all cultures.

Keywords: Direct wet nursing, expressed donor milk, milk kinship, Muslim community, non-maternal nursing


How to cite this article:
AlHreashy FA. Non-maternal nursing in the muslim community: A health perspective review. J Clin Neonatol 2018;7:191-7

How to cite this URL:
AlHreashy FA. Non-maternal nursing in the muslim community: A health perspective review. J Clin Neonatol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 13];7:191-7. Available from: http://www.jcnonweb.com/text.asp?2018/7/4/191/243339




  Introduction Top


Breastfeeding is the normative standard for infant nutrition and considered to be a public health concern.[1] The World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledges breastfeeding to be an investment in early childhood. Every US$1 invested in supporting breastfeeding generates an estimated US$35 in economic returns across low- and middle-income countries. Reducing health-care costs and ultimately advancing productivity will have a benefit to the national economy.[2] A cost–benefit analysis conducted in seven countries in Southeast Asia showed that inadequate breastfeeding contributed to over 12,400 preventable child and maternal deaths per year. The potential savings in health-care costs ($0.3 billion annually) from reducing the incidence of diarrhea and pneumonia could help offset the cost of promoting breastfeeding.[3]

The vast majority of mothers are capable of breastfeeding, just as the vast majority of infants are capable of suckling; the mother's milk is considered unsuitable for her infant only in exceptional situations. The best alternatives in circumstances where infants who cannot, or should not, be breastfed, are expressed milk from the infant's own mother, milk from a healthy wet nurse or a human milk bank, or a human milk substitute fed with a cup, which is a safer method than a feeding bottle and teat; the choice of method depends on individual circumstances.[4]

Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the most common alternative to natural mother's milk, and this remains a privilege of wealthy families. Wet nursing was once a legitimate profession with numerous supporters as well as opponents. Milk substitutes were available by the end of the 18th century, and the dilemma shifted from breastfeeding versus wet nursing to human milk versus milk substitutes. As a result, the incidence of wet nursing reached its lowest point in the 19th century. In addition to providing biological benefits, wet nursing has functioned as a social, economic, and political force throughout history. In some cultures, wet nursing is not merely used as an alternative form of nutrition; it is also important for the establishment of milk kinship and as a marker of economic mobility or established alliances. Although wet nursing has declined with the introduction of bottle feeding, it remains a religious practice in many parts of the world.[5]

Details of wet nursing practices worldwide are currently unavailable; however, milk expression appears to be an increasingly prevalent practice, especially in countries with milk banks, where it is associated with maternal employment.[6],[7],[8] Indeed, the practice of wet nursing has made a comeback in the form of milk donation and milk sharing.[9] This review seeks to answer a series of questions:

  1. What is the current practice of wet nursing in the Muslim world?
  2. Is direct wet nursing preferable to the use of human milk expressed by a wet nurse?
  3. What are the ideal characteristics of a wet nurse?
  4. What are the health indications for non-maternal nursing?
  5. What are the challenges to wet nursing practice in the Muslim community?


I briefly review the reported trends in non-maternal human milk feeding and highlight their applications in medical practice. This review sheds light on the practice of wet nursing in the context of Islam. It also highlights the importance of identifying the source of human milk and presents the issues related to the establishment of human milk banks in Muslim communities. Furthermore, it addresses the need for evidence-based guidelines for non-maternal nursing that are in keeping with the culture and morals of the context in which they are applied.


  Basic Biomedical Sciences Top


Variability

Unlike infant formula feeding, breastfeeding has a characteristic variability in several physiological aspects. Human milk is a dynamic, bioactive fluid that changes from colostrum to mature milk in late lactation and varies within feeds, diurnally, and among different mothers.[7] The variability in macronutrient contents between mothers suggests that human milk analysis may improve the nutritional management of low-birth-weight infants.[9] Hence, selecting and identifying a wet nurse for the infant is highly important from both clinical and social perspectives.

Milk supply

The concept of expressing breast milk to increase supply has been addressed in lactation physiology.[1] This concept is applicable to wet nurses who feed two or more infants directly or through expressed milk. Indeed, lactation can be induced even in the absence of pregnancy, and regular stimulation is important for milk production.[10] Yet, the importance of monitoring an infant fed by a wet nurse or adopted mother cannot be neglected.

Dose response

The correlation between dose and the benefits of lactation is well documented.[11],[12],[13] The dose of human milk is usually described according to exclusivity, regularity, and/or the duration. The regularity of breastfeeding is commonly described by the terms exclusive, predominant, partial, token, any breastfeeding, and never breastfed.[14] Pang et al. observed that the duration of direct breastfeeding is longer than that of expressed human milk feeding.[15] Perceived insufficiency in milk production is among the most frequently cited reasons for formula supplementation and early breastfeeding cessation throughout the postpartum course;[16] consequently, increasing the dose of human milk from a non-maternal source may be a better option.

Skin-to-skin contact

Direct nursing is the basis of the beautiful dyad of lactation and motherhood. Skin-to-skin contact (also known as “kangaroo care”) is important for infant development. Infants who have regular skin-to-skin contact with their mothers have better coordinated sucking and swallowing patterns, stay warmer, and cry less, while mothers experience increased oxytocin release, a further boost in milk production, enjoyable bonding, and more confidence in their motherhood abilities.[17] Hence, direct wet nursing seems to be better than feeding solely with expressed milk, even if the milk is from the biological mother.

Milk expression

Lactating women can express their milk for storage by manual or mechanical means. However, storage changes the composition of the milk. For example, freezing decreases the effectiveness of some of the antibodies, damages some cells present in the milk,[18],[19] and degrades many milk proteins. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine has released protocols for human milk handling and storage.[20] Education of new mothers on expression and storage is recommended, irrespective of whether it is used for their own infant or for donation.[21]

Pasteurization of human milk

Pasteurization is an important technique for preventing the passage of bacterial and viral infections through milk. Walker[19] described the changes in milk composition with heating during pasteurization and with freezing. Heat-induced degradation of many proteins may alter the bioactivity of milk.[7] The choice of pasteurized milk from milk banks as opposed to unpasteurized milk sharing is a hot topic of discussion, with most favoring safe feeding of infants by wet nurses. However, direct wet nursing might provide better quality milk than pasteurized for infants who are able to suckle.

Genetics of human milk

Most of the benefits of breastfeeding are due to the cellular components of human milk [Figure 1]. Kaingade et al. recently highlighted the need for human milk cell banking, as living milk cells such as leukocytes and lymphocytes are significantly diminished or damaged by pasteurization and freezing.[18] Indeed, the genetic applications of the viable cells in human milk are an interesting area of future research and may account for the superiority of direct wet nursing over pasteurized human milk feeding. Moreover, identification of wet nurse(s) per child(ren) is valuable when milk kinship is a concern.
Figure 1: Components of breast milk. Source: Kaingade et al.[18]

Click here to view



  Methods of Non-maternal Nursing Top


Terminology

The WHO/United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund defines breastfeeding as a method by which a child receives human milk directly from the breast or expressed.[14] A wet nurse has been defined as “a woman who breastfeeds another woman's child,”[22] “a woman who breastfeeds an infant other than her own for pay,”[23] or “a woman employed to suckle another woman's child.”[24]

Human “milk sharing,” which is rapidly spreading in the U.S.,[25] is “the noncommercial practice in which a donor gives expressed human milk directly to a recipient family for the purpose of infant feeding or breastfeeds a recipient infant.” Furthermore, recent studies have shown that milk-sharing donors and recipients use both online and offline social networks to facilitate these practices.[26] Informal sharing of unpasteurized human milk from donors should be practiced with caution.[27]

In 2012, there was a call for consistency in the definitions relating to the breastfeeding dyad (the relationship between the infant and the milk provider) and the method of feeding.[28],[29] Subsequent initiatives have begun to categorize maternal and donor human milk under the common term “human milk,” despite the marked differences in the composition, efficacy, associated costs, and health outcomes.[30] Systematic reviews on the health outcomes related to different types of breastfeeding and human milk use are required, and consistency between breastfeeding-related definitions and methods is necessary before interventions can be adequately developed and tested.[31]

The types of non-maternal nursing in infant nutrition are illustrated in [Box 1].



Direct wet nursing

Despite the absence of practical guidelines, direct wet nursing is widely considered to be a healthy practice. Compared with feeding expressed milk, several studies of the health and disease outcomes have indicated the benefits of direct lactation in terms of the following situations:

  • Direct breastfeeding may be advantageous compared to feeding of expressed milk in terms of reducing the risk of otitis media[32]
  • The suckling process in direct breastfeeding plays a role in the control of satiety and the prevention of rapid weight gain[33],[34]
  • Unlike direct breastfeeding, milk expression and storage require the use of technology[35]
  • The infant population is vulnerable to morbidity and mortality in disaster situations.[1] Thus, promulgation of direct breastfeeding and wet nursing practices may help save the lives of such babies.[1],[36],[37]


Indirect wet nursing

The other method of wet nursing is through the feeding of expressed human milk from a donor (wet nurse). This practice is of particular importance for high-risk infants, especially those with a very low birth weight.[27] The reasons for this are that premature infants find suckling at the breast difficult, and some mothers are unable to provide sufficient quantities of their own milk.

Experts recommend that high-risk infants are fed donor human milk obtained from milk banks.[27],[38] The American Academy of Pediatrics discourages the practice of informal milk sharing because of the increased risk of bacterial and viral infections, the transfer of drugs or medications, and the presence of cow milk protein. In fact, the practice of feeding expressed milk is also now observed with normal newborns in a nursery,[39] and informal milk sharing is observed in some communities.[40],[41] However, the concept of feeding donor milk to sick infants is not acceptable in certain communities.[42]


  Call for Medical Guidelines Top


Paucity of medical literature in wet nursing

Wet nursing is well described in the literature across different disciplines and especially in the social and religious sciences.[43],[44] Although wet nursing is an option listed in the WHO “Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding,” textbooks for physicians and allied health professionals barely mention the terms “wet nurse” and “wet nursing,” which seem to be recommended only in disaster situations or for emergency infant nutrition.[1] On the other hand, milk donation (indirect wet nursing) is well addressed, especially by the establishment of milk banks. Wet nursing is expected to benefit children, women, and society from physical, social, and psychological viewpoints. The conditions that necessitate non-maternal nursing can be medical or nonmedical; examples of such conditions are illustrated in [Box 2].



Ideal characteristics of a wet nurse

The ideal characteristics of wet nurse and/or human milk donor[45] are summarized in [Box 3] and indicate a holistic approach to health. Human milk donors for milk banks should be healthy lactating mothers,[46] and screening tools should be implemented to identify ideal donors. To be eligible as milk donors, women must not be on recreational or other drugs, and the approval of both their physician and the infant's physician is required. In addition, the milk bank is required to obtain a health history and blood samples for testing. The donors are usually screened for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia viruses 1 and 2, and syphilis.[47]




  Focus on the Muslim Community Top


A considerable number of infants receive suboptimal nutrition in some Muslim communities,[48],[49] many of which have a low economic status, while others face various forms of political instability; thus, there is a strong need for promoting breastfeeding to improve maternal and infant health. In addition, many Muslims live in non-Muslim communities, and utilization of milk banks in emergency situations is a particular issue.[50]

Wet nursing is an option

Breastfeeding has a religious basis in Islam, which supports the employment of a wet nurse with mutual agreement from the parents when the mother is unable to breastfeed. This demonstrates the preference in Islam for human milk for infant feeding.[51] It is the father's responsibility to ensure that his child breastfeeds even if the birth mother is not able to breastfeed:[45] “And if you desire a wet nurse for your children, then no guilt shall be on you if you hand over what you have given with kindness” (Al-Qur'an al-Kareem: Surah Al-Baqarah: Verse 233). Moreover, it is appropriate to offer an incentive agreed by both the father and the wet nurse: “And if they suckle your (offspring), give them their recompense. And if ye find yourselves in difficulties, let another woman suckle (the child) on the (father's) behalf” (Al-Qur'an al-Kareem: Surah At-Talaq [Divorce]: Verse 65).

Hukum Tahrim

According to several tenets in Islam known as Hukum Tahrim, wet nursing creates impediments to marriage between a nurse and her nursling, as well as between male and female (strange) nurslings suckling from the same nurse:[45] “Forbidden to you are your mothers and your daughters and your sisters and your paternal aunts and your maternal aunts and brothers' daughters and sisters' daughters and your mothers that have suckled you and your foster-sisters” (Al-Qur'an al-Kareem: Surah An-Nisa: Verse 23). Hence, identification of the wet nurse/donor mother is essential and feeding anonymized donor human milk is not acceptable.

Indeed, in Islam, the frequency of breastfeeding is a marker of milk kinship (adoptive motherhood): “An infant that is breastfed by a woman other than his or her biological mother five times or more within the first 2 years of its life then becomes her son or daughter from lactation.”[43]

In Saudi Arabia, the Charitable Organization for the Care of Orphans launched the “Creating Relatives for Orphans through Breastfeeding” program, through which a volunteer mother is assigned an orphan child to breastfeed. As a result, the child will experience the desired health effects of breastfeeding and will be provided with familial roots that help improve his or her psychological and social well-being.[52] This project is an example of the holistic benefits of wet nursing for specific groups in the society.

Although the flexibility of the Sharia with regard to non-maternal nursing is well established, the use of milk banks is not permitted for Muslims owing to fear of the Tahrim mentioned earlier.[53] The concept of milk kinship in Islam is usually raised when preterm infants of Muslim families would receive donated human milk.[54]

The use of human milk banks among Muslims is controversial: the fatwa prohibiting milk banks in the Muslim world contradicts the bioethics of using the best nutrition to save the lives of preterm infants.[53],[55] In 2015, studies of the perception of human milk donation and milk banks among Turkish mothers in a Muslim community showed that the majority were against the establishment of Western-style human milk banks; however, their response to human milk banks when their religious concerns were relieved was more positive. Concerns regarding the risk of infections were also raised.[56],[57] A study in Malaysia showed that most Muslim mothers surveyed had a fair knowledge and favorable perception of human milk sharing. However, a detailed understanding of the related Islamic issues was significantly lacking, especially concerning the implications of the Islamic term “mahram.”[58]

Alnakshabandi and Fiester have indicated their desire to organize such banks in compliance with Islam.[59] The increasing migration of Muslims to other countries brings this issue to prominence, especially when dealing with sick premature infants in neonatal Intensive Care Units. The value of a multidisciplinary, culturally sensitive process for dealing with situations where there is a conflict between religious or cultural beliefs and clinical practice is essential to formulate a solution that considers cultural differences and allows the parents and clinicians to decide.[50],[59]

Challenges

The availability of milk formulas and the established practice of feeding such formulas are major challenges to increasing the practice of breastfeeding, including wet nursing. Although non-maternal nursing is a valuable option in infant nutrition, many arguments have been made against wet nursing. The challenges that face the spread of direct wet nursing are summarized in [Box 4]. In a study of direct wet nursing in the Muslim community, Mobeirek identified various religious, economic, health-related, and psychosocial challenges[60] and showed that milk kinship was a prominent concern. Indeed, these challenges can be overcome by education, clinical assessment of wet nurses and parental support. The culture and morals of a community should be considered when promoting the practice of wet nursing.




  Conclusions Top


The options for non-maternal nursing vary in quality, feasibility, customs, and cost across communities; this is in addition to the physiological variabilities of lactation. Direct wet nursing is a valuable resource that should be encouraged with appropriate support from the medical community. Islam supports breastfeeding from mothers as well as from wet nurses. However, the parents must know the identity of the human milk donors as a mark of respect for the kinship created between the wet nurse and the infant according to Islamic law. Thus, there is a need for multidisciplinary, evidence-based guidelines for non-maternal nursing of healthy and sick infants that are in keeping with cultural norms.

Acknowledgment

I would like to extend special thanks to experts who support this publication and particular appreciation for Professor Abdulrahman Al. Frayh for his valuable comments.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Siberry GK, Abzug MJ, Nachman S, Brady MT, Dominguez KL, Handelsman E, et al. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children: Recommendations from the national institutes of health, centers for disease control and prevention, the HIV medicine association of the infectious diseases society of America, the pediatric infectious diseases society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2013;32 Suppl 2:i-KK4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ghebreyesus T, Lake A. Breastfeeding is not one Women Job; 2017. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/commentaries/world-breastfeeding-week/en/.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Walters D, Horton S, Siregar AY, Pitriyan P, Hajeebhoy N, Mathisen R, et al. The cost of not breastfeeding in Southeast Asia. Health Policy Plan 2016;31:1107-16.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
World Health Organization, UNICEF. Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Rosen N. The Milk Relationship: The Evolution and Significance of Wet Nurses; 2013. Available from: http://www.repository.upenn.edu/anthro_seniortheses/138/.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Geraghty SR, Sucharew H, Rasmussen KM. Trends in breastfeeding: It is not only at the breast anymore. Matern Child Nutr 2013;9:180-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ballard O, Morrow AL. Human milk composition: Nutrients and bioactive factors. Pediatr Clin North Am 2013;60:49-74.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Labiner-Wolfe J, Fein SB, Shealy KR, Wang C. Prevalence of breast milk expression and associated factors. Pediatrics 2008;122 Suppl 2:S63-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Colaizy TT. Donor human milk for preterm infants: What it is, what it can do, and what still needs to be learned. Clin Perinatol 2014;41:437-50.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Flores-Antón B, García-Lara NR, Pallás-Alonso CR. An adoptive mother who became a human milk donor. J Hum Lact 2017;33:419-21.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Aune D, Norat T, Romundstad P, Vatten LJ. Breastfeeding and the maternal risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2014;24:107-15.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Bartick M. Breastfeeding and health: A review of the evidence. J Women Polit Policy 2013;34:317-29. [doi: 10.1080/1554477X.2013.835651].  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Raisler J, Alexander C, O'Campo P. Breast-feeding and infant illness: A dose-response relationship? Am J Public Health 1999;89:25-30.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
World Health Organization. Indicators for Assessing Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Pang WW, Bernard JY, Thavamani G, Chan YH, Fok D, Soh SE, et al. Direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding: Relation to duration of breastfeeding. Nutrients 2017;9. pii: E547.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Foss KA. Breastfeeding and Media: Exploring Conflicting Discourses that Threaten Public Health. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Moore ER, Bergman N, Anderson GC, Medley N. Cochrane. Early Skin-To-Skin Contact for Mothers and their Healthy Newborn Infants. Available from: http://www.cochrane.org/CD003519/PREG_early-skin-skin-contact-mothers-and-their-healthy-newborn-infants.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Kaingade P, Somasundaram I, Nikam A, Behera P, Kulkarni S, Patel J. Breast milk cell components and its beneficial effects on neonates: Need for breast milk cell banking. JPNIM 2017;6:e060115.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Walker M. Breastfeeding Management for Clinicians: Using the Evidence. 4th ed. Burlington: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Eglash A, Simon L, Medici TA. ABM clinical protocol #8: Human milk storage information for home use for full-term infants, Rev 2017. Breastfeeding Medicine 2017;12:390-5. [doi: 10.1089/bfm.2017.29047.aje].  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
World Health Organization. National Implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Stevens EE, Patrick TE, Pickler R. A history of infant feeding. J Perinat Educ 2009;18:32-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Thorley V. Milk kinship and implications for human milk banking: A review. Womens Health Bull 2006;3:e36897.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
English Oxford Living Dictionaries. Section on Wet Nurse. Available from: https://www.en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/us/wet_nurse.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
O'Sullivan EJ, Geraghty SR, Rasmussen KM. Informal human milk sharing: A qualitative exploration of the attitudes and experiences of mothers. J Hum Lact 2016;32:416-24.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Palmquist AE, Doehler K. Human milk sharing practices in the U.S. Matern Child Nutr 2016;12:278-90.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Committee on Nutrition, Section on Breastfeeding, Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Donor human milk for the high-risk infant: Preparation, safety, and usage options in the United States. Pediatrics 2017;139. pii: e20163440.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Labbok MH, Starling A. Definitions of breastfeeding: Call for the development and use of consistent definitions in research and peer-reviewed literature. Breastfeed Med 2012;7:397-402.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Noel-Weiss J, Boersma S, Kujawa-Myles S. Questioning current definitions for breastfeeding research. Int Breastfeed J 2012;7:9.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Meier P, Patel A, Esquerra-Zwiers A. Donor human milk update: Evidence, mechanisms, and priorities for research and practice. J Pediatr 2017;180:15-21.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Sakalidis VS, Geddes DT. Suck-swallow-breathe dynamics in breastfed infants. J Hum Lact 2016;32:201-11.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Boone KM, Geraghty SR, Keim SA. Feeding at the breast and expressed milk feeding: Associations with otitis media and diarrhea in infants. J Pediatr 2016;174:118-25.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Disantis KI, Collins BN, Fisher JO, Davey A. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2011;8:89.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Li R, Magadia J, Fein SB, Grummer-Strawn LM. Risk of bottle-feeding for rapid weight gain during the first year of life. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2012;166:431-6.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Peters MD, McArthur A, Munn Z. Safe management of expressed breast milk: A systematic review. Women Birth 2016;29:473-81.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Carothers C, Gribble K. Infant and young child feeding in emergencies. J Hum Lact 2014;30:272-5. [doi: 10.1177/0890334414537118].  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Prudhon C, Maclaine A, Hall A, Benelli P, Harrigan P, Frize J. Research priorities for improving infant and young child feeding in humanitarian emergencies. BMC Nutr 2016;2. [doi: 10.1186/s40795-016-0066-6].  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Wagner J, Hanson C, Berry AA. Donor human milk for premature infants. ICAN 2013;5:71-7.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Sen S, Benjamin C, Riley J, Heleba A, Drouin K, Gregory K, et al. Donor milk utilization for healthy infants: Experience at a single academic center. Breastfeed Med 2018;13:28-33.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Gribble KD, Hausman BL. Milk sharing and formula feeding: Infant feeding risks in comparative perspective? Australas Med J 2012;5:275-83.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Perinatal Services BC. Section on Practice Resources for Health Care Providers: Informal (peer-to-peer) Milk Sharing: The use of Unpasteurized Human Milk; 2016. Available from: http://www.perinatalservicesbc.ca/Documents/Guidelines-Standards/HealthPromotion/InformalMilkSharing_PracticeResource.pdf.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Murray L, Anggrahini SM, Woda RR, Ayton JE, Beggs S. Exclusive breastfeeding and the acceptability of donor breast milk for sick, hospitalized infants in Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia: A mixed-methods study. J Hum Lact 2016;32:438-45.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Al-Rogy S. The prohibited amount of milk: A comparative study. Umm Al Gura J Sci Sharia Arabic Lang Princ 2004;300:300-42. Available from: http://www.masder.kfnl.gov.sa/bitstream/123456789/26137/2/U03M01V12A05.pdf?locale=en.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Golden J. Social History of Wet Nursing in America: From Breast to Bottle. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1996.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Saari Z, Yusof F, Rosman A, Nizar T, Muhamad S, Ahmad S. Wet nursing: A historical review and its ideal characteristics. PERINTIS eJ 2016;6:1-13.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Arnold LD, Borman LL. What are the characteristics of the ideal human milk donor? J Hum Lact 1996;12:143-5.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Lawrence RA, Lawrence RM. Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2016.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Al-Nuaimi N, Katende G, Arulappan J. Breastfeeding trends and determinants: Implications and recommendations for gulf cooperation council countries. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2017;17:e155-61.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Karadisha M. Factors affecting the natural conditional breastfeeding in Jordanian society: An analytical study. Dirasat Hum Soc Sci 2016;43:755-72.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Williams TC, Butt MZ, Mohinuddin SM, Ogilvy-Stuart AL, Clarke M, Weaver GA, et al. Donor human milk for muslim infants in the UK. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2016. pii: fetalneonatal-2015-310337.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Papastavrou M, Genitsaridi SM, Komodiki E, Paliatsou S, Midw R, Kontogeorgou A, et al. Breastfeeding in the course of history. J Pediatr Neonat Care 2015;2:00096.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Islamic Development Bank. Section on Winners of IDB Prize for the Contribution of Women in Development: Prize Winners of the Third Edition. Available from: http://www.isdb.org/irj/portal/anonymous?NavigationTarget=navurl://744f417a19ed335f9f3f27decc21e0c4.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Obeed A. Human milk banks between banning or allowance. J Coll Law Polit Sci 2017;6:337-400.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
El-Khuffash A, Unger S. The concept of milk kinship in Islam: Issues raised when offering preterm infants of muslim families donor human milk. J Hum Lact 2012;28:125-7.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Khalil A, Buffin R, Sanlaville D, Picaud JC. Milk kinship is not an obstacle to using donor human milk to feed preterm infants in Muslim countries. Acta Paediatr 2016;105:462-7.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Ekşioğlu A, Yeşil Y, Turfan EÇ. Mothers' views of milk banking: Sample of İzmir. Turk Pediatri Ars 2015;50:83-9.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Karadag A, Ozdemir R, Ak M, Ozer A, Dogan DG, Elkiran O, et al. Human milk banking and milk kinship: Perspectives of mothers in a Muslim country. J Trop Pediatr 2015;61:188-96.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Nur AR, Pauzi WW, Noraida R, Azwany NY. Knowledge and perceptions of Muslim mothers on breast milk sharing. Paper presented at 2nd World Conference on Islamic Thought and Civilization, Malaysia; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Alnakshabandi K, Fiester A. Creating religiously compliant milk banks in the Muslim world: A commentary. Paediatr Int Child Health 2016;36:4-6.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Mobeirek A, Al-Hreashy F. Wet Nursing Services Center Project to Support the Economy of Saudi Arabia: Proposed project. Ministry of Education; Riyadh, Saudia Arabia; 2018.  Back to cited text no. 60
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
  Search Pubmed for
  Search in Google Scholar for
Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Basic Biomedical...
Methods of Non-m...
Call for Medical...
Focus on the Mus...
Conclusions
References
Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed323    
    Printed20    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded74    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal