Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Users Online: 543
 
About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Advertise Login 
     
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 25-30

Effect of topical application of human breast milk versus 4% chlorhexidine versus dry cord care on bacterial colonization and clinical outcomes of umbilical cord in preterm newborns


1 National Institute of Nursing Education, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, Neonatal Unit, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Daiahunlin Lyngdoh
C/O L. Wanniang, Lummawsing, Mawtawar, Shillong - 793 022, Meghalaya
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcn.JCN_91_17

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: The umbilical cord is one of the routes of entry of microorganisms that can cause infection. Hence, affordable, effective, and safe cord care regimens are needed to prevent from such infections. Methods: The study was conducted in Nehru Hospital, PGIMER, Chandigarh, with the objective to assess the effect of two cord care regimens – human breast milk and 4% chlorhexidine on bacterial colonization and other clinical outcomes. A total of 105 newborns were enrolled and randomized into three groups (35 participants in each group) – human breast milk, 4% chlorhexidine, and dry cord care group (control group). The umbilical cord swab baseline sample was taken and cultured from each of the participants. The first application (either breast milk or 4% chlorhexidine) was done immediately after the baseline cord swab sample was taken. In the dry cord care group (control group), nothing was applied on the cord. Cord swab was again taken at 72 ± 12 h and at 120 ± 12 h after birth. Umbilical cord separation time was noted. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in cord colonization at baseline (P = 0.13). At 72 ± 12 h, 34.3%, 5.7%, and 51.4% had colonization in the breast milk, chlorhexidine, and dry cord care, respectively (P < 0.001). At 120 ± 12 h, 22.9% had bacterial colonization in the breast milk group, 71.4% in the dry cord care group whereas only 2.9% in the chlorhexidine group (P < 0.001). The timing of cord separation was 9.09 ± 2.4 days, 12.65 ± 2.9 days, and 10.54 ± 3.1 days in the breast milk, chlorhexidine, and dry cord care, respectively, with maximum separation time with chlorhexidine application and least time taken in the breast milk group (P < 0.001). The main microorganisms detected were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Streptococcus. Conclusion: It is concluded that 4% chlorhexidine is very effective in reducing pathogenic bacteria colonization of the cord. Further, human breast milk, to some extent, can reduce bacterial colonization in low-resource settings and is a better alternative to dry cord care.


[FULL TEXT] [PDF]*
Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
  Search Pubmed for
  Search in Google Scholar for
Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed446    
    Printed11    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded176    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal