Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Users Online: 133
 
About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Advertise Login 
     
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 64-70

Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening, diagnosis, management, and outcome


King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Noman Ahmad
King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Jeddah
Saudi Arabia
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcn.JCN_5_17

Rights and Permissions

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the most common causes of preventable mental retardation. Thyroid hormone has an essential role in the brain development during the first 2–3 years of life. Incidence of CH is 1:3000–1:4000 live births, but there is evidence that its incidence is increasing. Majority of newborn babies do not exhibit obvious clinical signs and symptoms until the age of 3 months due to either some residual thyroid function or transplacental passage of maternal thyroid hormone. Common clinical symptoms include lethargy, sleepiness, poor feeding, constipation, and prolonged jaundice. Other common findings on clinical examination include macroglossia, large fontanels, umbilical hernia, and hypotonia. Neonatal screening for CH is practiced in the developed countries for the last three decades, and various studies show that normal cognitive function is attainable with early detection and treatment. This review discusses different protocols being used for screening. It highlights recent recommendation of screening and retesting cutoffs. Thyroid imaging can help in differentiating underlying etiology, either thyroid dysgenesis or dyshormonogenesis. Treatment with levothyroxine (L-T4) 10–15 mcg/kg should be started immediately after diagnosis without delaying for imaging purposes. Frequent and vigilant monitoring with L-T4 dose adjustment is mandatory in infancy and childhood to achieve normal physical growth and neurodevelopment. Children with CH are followed by different pediatric specialties including general pediatricians, neonatologists, developmental pediatricians, and endocrinologists and in primary care; therefore, it is essential to increase the awareness of monitoring protocols among all physicians.


[FULL TEXT] [PDF]*
Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
  Search Pubmed for
  Search in Google Scholar for
Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1183    
    Printed16    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded303    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal