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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 109-114

Assessment of methemoglobin concentration, serum nitrate, and nitrite levels and their interrelationships with antioxidant status in the cord blood of neonates born via normal delivery versus neonates delivered by cesarean section in an Indian population


1 Department of Biochemistry, Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital, Malda, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Malda Medical College and Hospital, Malda, West Bengal, India
3 Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Manali Sinharay
Department of Biochemistry, Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital, 32, Gorachand Road, Kolkata - 700 014, West Bengal
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2249-4847.154105

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Background: Oxidative and nitrosative stress are known to be associated with the transition from fetal to neonatal life at birth, when newborns having a compromised antioxidant defense system are suddenly exposed to a normoxic environment (from a hypoxic state). The current study explores the levels of antioxidants, markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress, in the cord blood samples of neonates born by cesarean section (CS) and normal delivery (ND), to assess the effect that the mode of delivery has on neonates, as far as oxidative and nitrosative stress are concerned. Aims: The main purpose of this study was to compare the levels of oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, and the antioxidant status in the cord blood of neonates delivered by ND, versus neonates delivered by CS. Materials and Methods: Cord blood was collected from 80 full-term, mature neonates of both sexes; 40 born via ND and 40 delivered by elective CS under regional (spinal) anesthesia. The samples were tested for the percent of methemoglobin as a marker of oxidative stress, as well as the antioxidants red blood cell (RBC) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), RBC reduced glutathione (GSH), and serum nitrate and nitrite as markers of nitrosative stress. The statistical evaluation of the data obtained was done using SPSS 17 software, taking the significance level as P < 0.05. Results: The comparison of the analytes between the two groups revealed that the percent of methemoglobin (P < 0.001) was significantly higher, and both RBC G6PD (P < 0.001) and RBC reduced GSH (P = 0.003) were significantly lower in CS neonates than in ND neonates. There were no significant differences in the serum nitrate (P = 0.273) and serum nitrite (P = 0.060) between the two groups of neonates. Conclusion: The CS neonates were deficient in antioxidants and had higher levels of oxidative stress than the ND neonates, but no significant difference existed in the nitrosative stress between the groups.


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